Discord and collaboration: essays on international politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins University Press, – Political Science – pages. Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Front Cover. Arnold Wolfers. Johns Hopkins Press, – International relations – pages. Title, Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics. Author, Arnold Wolfers. Edition, reprint. Publisher, Johns Hopkins Press, Export Citation.
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Close and effective colpaboration amity as among allies should tend to promote emotional friendship. Isam Alzubydy marked it as to-read Sep 25, Deterrence can only work in the minds of the men in charge of Soviet policy by convincing them that acts they might otherwise wish to undertake would prove too costly in light of the punishment the United States would, in their opinion, be able and prepared to inflict.
Theory of International Politics. They may expect such co-operation to bolster rather than disturb friendly relations with others.
Discord and collaboration; essays on international politics.
This second wnd Is properly called the decision- making approach, since it is concerned with decisions, the way they are made, and the men who make them. The differences in behavior arising from variations in the internal pressures are no less great. Despite the difficulties and complications arising out of the way ends can serve one another as means, it often becomes necessary to inquire whether a nation is seeking certain results from its policy primarily for the results’ own sake or merely as means of reaching more remote goals.
However, these sciences have not rendered the intuition of the prac- ticing physician superfluous as anyone should realize who has relied on a doctor possessing profound scientific knowledge but devoid of the gift of empathy and comprehension for the individual patient.
All alliances or col- lective defense agreements fall into this second category. While Eden believed Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Canal Company endangered Britain’s economic lifeline and required military action, diwcord other British statesmen would have reacted differently and no one could have said with certainty at the time what course of action would be the most rational under the circumstances. Moreover, if state behavior is to be Intelligible and to any degree predictable, states must be assumed to possess psy- chological traits discoord the kind known to the observer through intro- spection and through acquaintance with other human beings.
Only as a first step in the analysis of wolvers problem does it make sense to treat interstate rela- tions as if they were immune to human discorf. Still, one may question whether the quest for national security and power, wolfwrs national independence, aggrandizement, or unifica- tion is any less “human” and therefore necessarily less appealing to the masses than the quest for food, shelter, comfort, and happi- ness.
Nonaligned countries seek to avoid not only conflict but also commitments for common and co-operative action. While amity among allies, particularly among wartime allies, may be as intimate as relations between independent nations can ever become, it would be a mistake to underestimate the strains that almost any alliance in war or peace places on such amity.
As a matter of fact, if one can criticize some recent studies it is not because they fail to take account of change but be- cause they exaggerate its impact to the point of loosing sight of the aspects of continuity and of successful wolfes to change that are equally conspicuous in our day. Please choose whether or not collaboratio want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours. The Actors in International Politics 23 ideologically far beyond its own borders.
Dmitry marked it as to-read May 04, Collxboration and try again. Psychologically, nothing is more striking today than the way in which men in almost every part of the globe have come to value those possessions upon collaboragion inde- pendent national fiscord depends, with the result that men, in their public capacity as citizens of a state, are willing to make the most sweeping sacrifices of their own well-being as private indi- viduals in the interest of their nation.
It should be added, however, that even if foreign policy were directed predominantly toward a single goal, such a goal would not monopolize the entire activity of states, except in the extreme emergency of a war. It might seem that the mere existence of a multitude of nation-states, each capable of independent decision and action, would suffice to explain the peaceless state of the world and the power struggles that fill the international arena.
Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers. On the other hand, any serious threat to India’s control of eastern Kashmir can be ex- pected to result in Indian military action, despite Nehru’s alleged pacifist inclinations. Here a nation finds itself competing with others for a share in values of limited supply; it is demanding that its share be left intact or be increased.
A geographical set of conditions, for instance, can affect the collsboration of a nation only as specific persons perceive and interpret these conditions. Unfortunately those who theorize about the causes and cures of diseases in the international arena suffer from serious handicaps to say the least compared to their counterparts in the medical field.
Instead of running for the exits, they would rush to enhance or maximize national power. It seems evident, however, that Communist doctrine colors Soviet thinking so strongly that the interpretation of what constitutes a Soviet national interest as well as the Soviet image of the outside world are strongly affected by the doctrine. The theorist can gain both encouragement and humility by com- paring the place of theory in medicine and in international politics.
This close relationship appears confirmed if one moves to the other pole and postulates that nations are engaged in making exacting demands on one another and are prepared to fight rather than give in. Here too, then, the states-as-actors theory and the individuals- as-actors theory must supplement each other.
Where external defense rather than economic co-operation or the pacific settlement of disputes among members of the group is the essential aim as in an alliance, any diminution of the external threat or of the will to meet it will tend to undermine cohesion and render futile any attempts to save the alliance by inward-directed “diver- sions.
Here tension and war are ascribed exclusively to the psychoneurotic traits of the leaders and elites of countries that initiate war, traits that in turn are seen as the result of unhappy childhood experiences of the individuals in question or of social conditions within the countries in which they lived. Turning now to the emotional setting, it almost goes without saying that wolfefs personal feelings and sympathies either wlfers Amity and Enmity Among Nations 33 the statesmen or between the peoples of two nations facilitate the conduct of amical interstate relations and also tend to be developed as a result of such conduct.
Nitze says that the United States “can no longer look merely to its narrow competitive interests within whatever structure happens, from time to time, to exist as a result of the policy and will of others or as a result of the chance operations of impersonal forces.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics – Arnold Wolfers – Google Books
They, too, can absorb more of a nation’s efforts and resources than is compatible with the vital needs of national security or power. If Nasser had attacked the British homeland, thereby collsboration “setting the house on fire,” the reaction of any British government, whatever the personal traits of its members, could have been predicted.
In any case, it would be a mistake to assume that the ideological cleavages between East and West, dsicord between some of the neutralists and the West, accompanied though they are at times by violent explosions of emotion, necessarily pre- clude cordial interstate relations.
In the case of Western European xiscord the inward-directed purpose of promoting the peace and welfare of the area has been dominant; yet the Soviet threat acts as a potent spur and it might, as some feared, have changed the character of the process of integration if the European Defense Community, clearly outward-directed, had come into being.
It is arjold noting that a similar coplaboration of conformity may be found where collabooration and compulsion are at a minimum.
One need only compare with the methods of traditional diplomacy the “parliamentary diplomacy” of crowds of delegates at the United Nations or the crudeness of the language recently introduced into the verbal exchanges between unfriendly governments to appreciate the extent of the change that has oc- curred in diplomatic procedures, at least, to concede a measure of plausibility to the obsolescence hypothesis.
It is not hard to see what kinds of deviations from the billiard ball model of a multistate system are possible, or to see that certain types of deviations facilitate the operations and increase the influ- ence of nonstate corporate actors.
Discord and Collaboration: Essays on International Politics
It makes sense, especially in our era, to distinguish between wolferx or revolutionary goals on the one hand and traditional national goals on the other. No matter how far theory succeeds in elaborating the rules and principles of military deterrence, for instance, it does not provide the statesman with propositions from which the proper policy for coping with a diwcord would-be aggressor can be deduced; yet the fate of mankind may hinge on his choice of policy in the particular instance.
Another case of divided sovereignty is presented by the European Coal and Steel Community which can act with considerable independence within the field of its competence.