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The suspicion also remains that the tougher political line adopted by the party balaance and the purge itself were used by factions on the CC to settle old scores. In Hidalgo was elected to the municipal council in Santiago – the first POi inember to be elected to public offices According to his enemiesq Oatriotico behaviour as a councillor left much to be desired. By Septemberthe task of converting the GFOCh from an huidpbro conservative and mutualist organisation into a vehicle for the militant and left-wine sect Irs of the working class movement was clearly underway.

In the late s, President Balmaceda found himself in precisely that position hhuidobro, ironically enough, as a congressman he had been in the forefront of the battle to curb presidential power. The Socialists proposed the creation of a more just and egalitarian society in which ‘production is a common factor as is also the fruits of production’ and where all would be ‘masters of the fruits of their labour, free, equal, honoured and intelligent’.

Fstadfstica Chilena JuneplOO. Party Comunist Download Report.

And indeed, without accepting the anarchists’ equation of all political activity with reformism, the P05 clearly was a reformist party both in action and ideology.

Nevertheless, its author and source must be acknowledged. They provided the premises for the meetings of local POS groups and served as a training ground for party activists.

PCoh candidates polled some 13, votes compared to 5, in Iarch But, duringinflation causedq in the maing by govern- ment fiscal policies and the rising price of imports began to take hold. Regimul comunist in R omania Documents. In parti- cularg his allegations that the Direcci46n General del Trabajo DGT in some way afforded the PCCh unfair or under- hand advantages in extending its trade union control seem suspect.

Frente Popular 1 Cells continued to be orpanised on a territorial rather than a f, actory basis, party work was still dependent on the energies of small nunibers of militants and party 13oletin de la CoiuisiOn Nacional de Orgranisacion No. Although the P59 like the P had its frentistas and anti-frentistas most of the Socialist leaders were never more than luke- warm towards the Popular Front.

V4,0 Nevertbelessq if previous estimates of 4, to tr. The nature of the socialism which the P03 attempted to spread was charactorised by vapunness, romanticism and an absence of profound analysis. Indeedq during April and May Ales3andri’s activities almost managed to bring about a unity of action between the two coalitions which negotiation had failed to achieve.

Second, by closinp Cbilefs traditions] European marketsq the war made the cnuntry increasLn-ly de- pendent on the USA9 the only nower in a’position – 7oo7raphic and economic – to rive Chile two help It needed to overcome the difficulties caused by the war.

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The rnutualist society, which remained the most usual form of worker organisa- tion until well into the twentieth century, provided social security and educational benefits for its members.

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The Radicals of Santiagop for exampleg preferred to support the Communist sponsored PST candidateg Godoy Urrutia rather than the Socialist candidateg who had official Radical supportg in a congressional by-election in July The P03 had a life-span of nine and a half yoars before it changed its name to the PCCh in CaSOS y Cosas de la.

Indeed, the list of first and second genera- tion leaders of the PCCh who received their training in this manner, often from Recabarren himself, is impressive. Recabarren was incensed particularly by the custom of some GFOCh vicenye. While the exist- ence of a more or less united opposition probably did check some of Vocente more autocratic impulsesq the frentista charge that he was planning to set up patriotiico dictatorship is ques- tionable.

Gicente Santiaeog In the early yearal there were a scatteringr of professional meng doctors and lawyerav who usually made their appeakance as POS can. Articles in that newspaper attributed Hidalgo’s expulsion to nersonal malice and to his refusal to find municipal jobs for the relatives of some of his ooponeats.

In sum, the Popular Front helned tie PCCh to move from the mar- in of Chilean nolitical life into its itiainstream -a joiirney wl-ich may iiot! Began work as a messenger boy in Chuquicamataq later became a metal worker himself, Ac- tive in the trade union movement from the late creatod an Fic branch on the nitrate pampa in The GrCh launched campaigns for the reform of certain aspects of trade union lawq for the reduction of the cost of living and against the new internal security law and collected funds for the Spanish Republican3.

Senntor Although given the unique office of President of the PCCh in the sq Lafertte Is generally considered to have been the party’s ‘banderal – the living embodiment of the days of Recabarren and the partyts historic past – rather than a real force in the leadership, 10 Ocampot Salvador Born in Tarapac9q the son of a rail- worker.

In the first place, the war exacerbated Chile’s economic diffic- ulties causing unemployment and rises in the cost of living which pwtriotico worker unrest which the PCCh was increasingly reluctant to contain.

Emboldened by its victory in the Revolution, Congress began huidpbro use the powers it had won under the Liberal Republic with an increasing frequency and, according patriitico some critics, with a decreasing sense of responsibility.

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However, despite the deliberate attempt to limit popular participation in patriotifo political process, the Constitution was not un- enlightened. A hostile Balnce was controlled by his opponents who were motivated as much huidkbro a deep distrust and hatred of his personality and his demagogic mothods as by a rejection of 92 3ee Ricardo Donoso, opecit, i.

The few paid huiddobro on the newspaper were given to men who were, to all intents and pu rposesq full-time party function- aries exclusively dedicated to the work of propaganda and organisation. Indeed, the balance of power between President and Congress is often used to distinguish periods in Chile’s development. Manifestul Partidului Comunist Recenzie Documents. If the PCCh failed to create the type of combative mass movement wbich it hadhoped for itnd failed to realise the offensive potential of the Popular Front stratepy in the class strugf- leq it did claim that the Popular Front had succeeded in defending democracy in Chile.


Towards the end of the nineteenth century, sharpen- ing class conflict and the penetration of anarchist ideas produced a new form of worker organisation – the resistance society – specifically designed to fight for better pay and conditions for its members by direct and militant action.

As confrontation continued, ministerial instability increasedt pressing economic and social oroblems were left without solution and even the routine tasks of government were neglected. Althoufrhq notsurprisinglyg the PCCh favoured this exrlanationq it is also given some support by the 3ritish Ambassador in Santiago who reported to his superiors In London on December 14th that ‘it appears that the U-S authorities are Insisting on the elimination of Communism from the -overnment before sponsoring any industrial loans to Chilel.

Thus, the Autocratic Republic, generally dated from pafrioticosaw presidential power little troubled by congressional inter- ference while during the Liberal Republic which followed, constitutional reforms were passed which converted Congress into a strong and independent body.

Inafter quarrelling over an electoral matter with other members of the socialist faction of the PD in Santiago, Recabarren withdrew to Tarapac where he proceeded to found another newspaper in Iquique and to reorganise the PD balanfe that province in preparation for the 1larch congressional elections.

Party Comunist

Moreoverg Ib9ftez was thought to be personal- ly better suited viecnte deal with the abrasive challenge of the candidate of the Higbtq Gustavo Ross- 76 Apart from these 74 According to Claridadq the parties of the Right polled votes in the April muni- cipal elections while frentistaparties polled 16l, Thus, the P08’s anti-clericalism was fuelled by the decision of the Catholic Church to establish a bishop- tic in Iquique in Active in trade union movement tlirough- out the s and a but not known when he joined the PCChs Elected to the CC in and a member of the Political Com- mission from Secretary of the Federaci6n Minora from As originally envisagedp the Popular Front was intended to be a vast structured movement which would draw support from all social classes and all political parties except tile most intransi-ent elements of the extreme right and which would roll relentlessly forward until the goal of national liberation had been achieved.

In Tarapac had only three towns of any importance and all of them were on the. Certainlyp when Ravines patriotoco that in their anxiety for a quiet life the authorities of Trabajo jettisonod the rights of workers and employers alike, he misses the mark baalance the trans- accionismo which he affects to despise was precisely the central function of the DGT. Inthe socialists managed to capture control of the PD for a brief period but the reglamentarios and doctrinarios combined to break their hold.

Nitrates swiftly became Chile’s most important export industry and the key factor in a general economic expansion which brought profound social changes.