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Flexural failure and penetration of cracks into tie columns ends Zabala et al, 9 Chapter 2: The effect of different reinforcement methods, the characteristics of masonry units and mortar as panel mampotseria materials, and reinforcement detailing of the panel and tie columns have been examined to identify both deficiencies, and the solutions that could be proposed to overcome them. A version of this chapter will be submitted for to the Journal of Structural Engineering of the American Society of Civil Engineers for peer-review and publication.
Furthermore, formation of more micro-cracks would improve the energy absorption characteristics, and thus, the seismic response. Detailed information on the regression approach, its fundamental assumptions and the implemented statistical and visual tools, are given in Appendix B.
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However, when panels are pierced with openings, these confining elements also appear at the opening borders, so as to avoid instability in these critical zones which are highly susceptible to damage.
Only ten specimens with panel aspect ratio greater than 2.
Practical ranges of important design variables for predicting the seismic response of CM walls using the proposed model 66 Table A-l: As a result, these data points were entirely excluded from the model development process.
Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall to avoid arbitrarily data removal, such specimens were included in the first regression analysis, and their peculiarity resulted in their elimination. Literature review Efficacy of panel mamoosteria reinforcement is substantially influenced by two key factors; its amount and type.
Loov et al proposed that shear friction may be represented by two components: In fact, Sy was first determined by substituting vmax for vcr in Equation Proposed equations adequately predict the model parameters at the cracking limit state that is believed to be independent of reinforcement detailing of the panel and confining elements.
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The coefficient a which is multiplied by vm in Equation and was determined on the basis of a few data points since slender C M walls comprise only a small portion of the database. The effect of openings and panel aspect ratio on the strength characteristics of C M walls, the capability of existing equations to predict the observed backbone response, and the limitations of the proposed equations are discussed in detail.
Experimental tests by Alcocer and Zepeda, indicate that RC tie columns are superior to their interior counterparts hollow masonry units, reinforced and groutedand therefore, their use is preferred, especially in highly seismic regions. Los lineamientos de diseno indicados en este documento para el diseno de muros de mamposteria confinada con ductilidad local optima fueron los siguientes: These effects are more pronounced when panels are left unreinforced in both vertical and 17 Chapter 2: Moreover, masonry codes are not consistent over the question of opening confinement.
Being developed on the basis of only a few specimens, Equation has its own limitations, and therefore, should be utilized with caution. However, as damage observations and the results of analytical studies by Astroza et al, indicate, a minimum wall density of 1.
Distribution of tie columns with different reinforcement detailing 89 x Figure A Figure A-5 contrasts the percentage of these two types of columns in the database. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry walls and masonry walls with multiple confining elements are among the specimens whose backbones cannot be predicted, because the small sample size makes them incomparable to the rest mamposteriia typical specimens included in the database.
Lognormal distribution of SmcJ8uu 60 Figure This point represents the second limit state of the model, and can be captured with two parameters; the maximum shear stress vm W and the associated drift ratio 5max. While the stringent regulations of Mexican code NTC-M, calls for confining all openings greater than confibada in width, Eurocode-8 only requires the inclusion of confining elements at the borders of openings whose areas exceed 1.
C M walls with concrete units, mqmposteria tie columns, and no column transverse reinforcement were not considered in the development of the model.
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Result parameters Table A While the proposed equation does capture the general trend of increasing shear strength with increasing masonry compressive strength, Figure indicates there is still considerable scatter in the data. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry walls 3. Only cyclic and monotonic quasi-static tests have been taken into account. As a result, these specimens were eliminated from the model. Key factors that characterize loading conditions of the quasi-static tests in terms of units, notations and general definitions are presented in Table A Junta constructiva Holgura, distancia, hueco entre dos elementos constructivos.
As the results of an extensive survey suggest, many C M buildings that satisfy minimum wall density fail to comply with the suggested minimum wall density per unit weight Moroni et al, The type of unit materials, also proved significant, and was therefore included in the final formulation of the model Equation Literature review RC tie columns cast against the masonry panel with confinad reinforcement detailing. However, such problems as local strength loss, and the presence of a plateau in the force-deformation response after yielding point made it difficult to determine the drift ratio at maximum strength with acceptable accuracy.
Close examination of data and the results of the regression analysis confirmed that these specimens exhibit bilinear behaviour, in contrast to the tri-linear response of typical squat C M walls. In addition, it should be kept in mind mamposreria all the empirical equations are developed on the basis of laboratory tests with highly controlled construction and material qualities.
Detailed information on the data that were not included in the final process of model creation, and the type of the problems that resulted in their elimination, is given in Appendix B. Troquelamiento Procedimiento constructivo empleado para condinada cimbras, estructuras de acuerdo al proyecto. This could be attributed to the elimination of specimens with hollow clay units, interior tie columns and p h c – 0 from the process of model development.
Paramento Cada una de las caras de una pared.
Furthermore, the effect of different design variables and deficiencies present could be determined when comparing these data for specimens with varying characteristics. The outcome of this research, however, could contribute to the development of more accurate models and guidelines for improvement of these currently deficient provisions.